SOLDERING AND SILVER BRAZING
Analyze the application to determine which valve is best suited for installation, keeping in mind the service for which the valve is recommended. Before installing the correct valve, review the installation instructions to prevent damage to the valve and assure its maximum efficiency.
1.Cut tube end square. Ream, burr and size.
2.Use sand cloth or steel wire brush to clean both tube and cut to bright metal. Steel wool is not recommended.
3.Apply flux to outside of tube and inside of solder cup. Surfaces to be joined must be completely covered. Use flux sparingly.
4.Be sure that valve is fully open. Apply heat to tube first. Transfer as much heat as possible through tube into valve. Avoid prolonged heating of valve itself.
4a. Silver Brazing Method:
Assemble parts to be brazed. If fluxed parts are allowed to stand, the water in the flux will evaporate; and dried flux is liable to flake off, exposing metal surfaces to oxidation. Assemble joint by inserting tube into socket hard against the stop. The assembly should be firmly supported so that it will remain in alignment during the brazing operation.
NOTE: On one inch and large valves, it is difficult to bring the whole joint up to temperature at one time. It will frequently be found desirable to use a double tip torch to maintain the proper temperature over the large area. A mild pre-heating of the whole socket area is recommended. Apply heat to parts to be joined. The preferred method is by oxy-acetylene flame. Heat tube first, beginning one inch from edge of valve. Sweep flame around tube in short strokes up and down at right angles to run of tube. To avoid burning through tube, the flame should be in continuous motion and not allowed to remain on any one point.
Apply flame to valve at base of socket. Heat uniformly, sweeping flame from valve to tube until flux on valve becomes quiet. Avoid excessive heating of valve.
When flux appears liquid and transparent on both tube and valve, start sweeping flame back and forth along axis of joint to maintain heat on parts to be joined, especially toward base of valve socket.
5.Use just enougn solder: with wire solder, use 3/4" for a 3/4" valve, etc. If too much solder is used, it may flow past tube stop and clog sealing area. When joint is filled, a continuous run of solder or brazing alloy will be visible.
5a. Silver Brazing Method:
Apply brazing wire or rod at point where tube enters valve socket. Keep flame away from rod or wire as it is fed into the joint. Move flame back and forth as alloy is drawn into joint. When the proper temperature is reached, alloy will flow readily into space between tube outer wall and valve socket. When joint is filled, a continuous rim of brazing alloy will be visible.
6.Remove excess solder with small brush while plastic, leaving a fillet around end of valve as cools.
The strength of a brazed joint does not vary appreciably with the different brazing materials, but depends to a large extent upon the maintenance of proper clearance between the outside of the tube and the valve socket. The interior dimensions of silver brazing valve sockets are machined to the closest tolerances and finished smooth to promote full capillary attraction.
NOTE: Care should be observed in cleaning and in removing residues of the cleaning medium. Attempting to braze a contaminated or improperly cleaned surface will result in an unsatisfactory joint. Silver brazing alloys will not flow over or bond to oxides. Oily or greasy surfaces repel fluxes, leaving bare spots which oxidize and result in voids and inclusions.
Grid, dirt or any foreign matter accumulated in the pipe can hinder efficient valve operation and seriously damage vital valve parts. Thoroughly clean pipe internally with air or steam.
When threading pipe, gauge pipe threads for size and length to avoid jamming pipe against seat and disc. Thoroughly clean threaded end to remove any harmful steel or iron deposits. For a good joint, use teflon tape or pipe dope. If pipe dope is used, apply sparingly on pipe threads, never on valve threads. Do not allow any pipe dope into valve body in order to avoid damage to disc and seat.
Before installation, check line of flow through valve so that valve will function properly. Close valve completely before installation. Apply wrench to hex next to pipe and guard against possible distortion. After installation of valve, support line; a sagging pipe line can distort the valve and cause failure.
There are several steps to follow to make sure that a flanged joint will be properly assembled. First clean the joint carefully. Then loosely assemble the joint by putting in the bottom two or three bolts. Then carefully insert the gasket into place. The bottom bolts will help locate gasket and hold it in position. Then insert the rest of the bolts into place and tighten all of the bolts evenly - not in rotation, but by the cross over method to load the bolts evenly and eliminate concentrated stresses. The bolts should be checked for tightness after an appropriate interval of use and retightened if necessary.